James Terry Gardiner
Papers, 1860-1896

SC7027

Quantity: 1 box, 10 extra-large folders (1.0 cubic ft.)
Access: Open to research
Acquisition: Heirs of James Terry Gardiner, 1925; accretion received 1938
Processed By: Regina Berry, Student Assistant, State University of New York at Albany for Manuscripts & Special Collections, June 2015

View catalog record

Biographical and Historical Note:

James Terry Gardiner (May 6, 1842-September 10, 1912) was a surveyor, engineer, public health pioneer, and director of the New York State Survey. Mount Gardiner in Kings Canyon National Park was named in his honor by the California Geological Survey. (The family name had historically been spelled with an “i” until his grandfather dropped the “i.”  James returned to the original spelling in his middle years.)

Gardiner was born in Troy, N.Y., second son of Daniel Gardner (1799-1863) and Ann Terry Gardner (1814-1883). He attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1861, studying engineering; he then studied at the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale. In 1863 he was persuaded to join Clarence King on a journey by horseback across the country to California. In San Francisco, he and King joined the U.S. Engineer Corps doing topographical surveys in the Western Territories.

In 1867 King appointed Gardiner chief topographer of the Fortieth Parallel Survey. Over the next six years King, Gardiner and their team explored areas from eastern California to Wyoming. In 1872 Gardiner joined the Hayden Survey as chief topographer of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, established by an act of Congress. He was elected general secretary of the American Geographical Society in 1875. He returned to New York and was appointed director of the State Survey of New York in 1876.

In 1879 the New York state legislature commissioned Gardiner and Frederick Law Olmsted to survey Niagara Falls and to create the single most important document in the Niagara preservation movement, a special report on the preservation of Niagara Falls. The report advocated for state purchase, restoration and preservation through public ownership of the scenic lands surrounding Niagara Falls. Restoring the former beauty of the falls was described in the report as a “sacred obligation to mankind.”  In 1883 Governor Grover Cleveland drafted legislation authorizing acquisition of lands for a state reservation at Niagara, and the Niagara Falls Association, a private citizens group founded in 1882, mounted a letter-writing campaign and petition drive in support of the park. Preservationists’ efforts were rewarded on April 30, 1885, when Governor David B. Hill signed legislation creating the Niagara Reservation, New York’s first state park. New York State began to purchase land from developers, under the charter of the Niagara Reservation State Park. In the same year, the province of Ontario established the Queen Victoria Niagara Falls Park for the same purpose. On the Canadian side, the Niagara Parks Commission governs land usage along the entire course of the Niagara River, from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario.

From 1880 to 1886 Gardiner was a member of the New York State Board of Health and, serving as the chairman of the Committee on Drainage, Sewerage and Topography, was instrumental in establishing proper sewage systems throughout the state.

Scope and Content Note:

The collection consists mainly of letters to James Terry Gardiner in his capacity as director of the New York State Survey from 1876 to 1886 and as a member of the New York State Board of Health from 1880 to 1886. Included are reports, maps, sketches and newspaper clippings. 

A considerable amount of the material relates to the creation and maintenance of the State Survey. In 1876, with the support of the American Geographical Society, an investigation found that existing maps of the state had significant errors, with state and county boundaries drawn incorrectly, town locations mismarked and no system of physical landmarks in existence. This report resulted in the establishment of the Board of Commissioners of the State Survey and the hiring of Gardiner to direct the effort. Funding for the survey was cut out of the appropriations bill in 1883, causing a furor within the scientific community.

Material relating to the preservation of Niagara Falls and the creation of the first state park there forms a significant part of this collection. Folders 5, 8, 9 and 15 contain letters and reports on this topic, including several from Frederick Law Olmsted and some from Canadian officials. A copy of the “act to authorize the state reservation at Niagara” is Item 111 in Folder 9. 

There are numerous letters from around the state to Gardiner during his tenure with the State Board of Health, discussing water and sewer drainage issues and the installation of improved sewerage systems in a number of towns.  These are mainly in Folders 12 and 13.

Arrangement:

This collection was originally processed sometime after it was acquired in 1925. Each item was assigned a number, perhaps in the order in which it arrived. Therefore, items are not ordered in any chronological or topical order. Many items were individually cataloged in the Manuscripts and Special Collections card catalog.

Provenance Note:

This collection was accessioned on July 2, 1925. While no source information exists, it most likely came from the Doane-Gardiner family.  Additional material was received September 13, 1938, and added to the collection. It was reprocessed in May-June, 2015 with the original numbered order retained, and a finding aid was produced at that time.

Related Collections:

Further information related to the life and career of James Terry Gardiner can be found in Collection no. SC11835a, which includes personal and family papers as well as material related to his participation in U.S. Geological Survey of western territories during the 1860s-!870s.

Box/Folder/Item List:


Box Folder Item Description
1 1 1 Letter: Luther R. Marsh, N.Y. to James T. Gardiner, August 15, 1884; thanking him for sending the N.Y. State Survey and Report on Niagara Falls.
1 1 2 Letter: C.O. Boutelle, Asst. Surveyor, Cazenovia, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, September 16, 1882; discusses surveying.
1 1 3 Letter: F.A.P. Bernard, president of Columbia College, N.Y., to Monsieur Le Professeur Tuerca [?], Paris, France, April 27, 1881; letter of introduction for James T. Gardiner.
1 1 4 Letter: F.A.P. Bernard, president of Columbia College, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, April 27, 1881; regards enclosrd letters of introduction for him to Mr. Tuerca and Col. Clarke.
1 1 5 Letter: F.A.P. Bernard, president of Columbia College, N.Y. to Col. A.R. Clarke, Southampton, England, April 27, 1881; letter of introduction for James T. Gardiner.
1 1 6 Typed copy of a letter: F.A.P. Bernard, president of Columbia College, N.Y., to Grover Cleveland, Governor of N.Y., March 12, 1883; argues for maintaining the state survey.
1 1 7 Typed copy of a letter: F.A.P. Bernard, president of Columbia College, N.Y., to Erastus Brooks, March 12, 1883; defends the Senate appropriation for the State Geodetic Survey.
1 1 8 Letter: F[rancis] A. S[tout] [New York City] to James T. Gardiner, July 15, 1886; about a meeting of the state survey committee; mentions [William] Dorsheimer.
1 1 9 Letter: Bernhardt Fernow, Chief of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Division of Forestry, Washington, D. C., to James T. Gardiner, April 26, 1886; regards a study of U.S. forests and rivers.
1 1 10 Letter: Bernhardt Fernow, Chief of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Division of Forestry, Washington, D. C., to James T. Gardiner, June 2, 1886; asking if Gardiner can still do the study.
1 1 11 Letter: Bernhardt Fernow, Chief of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Division of Forestry, Washington, D. C., to James T. Gardiner, April 23, 1886; proposing Gardiner study and report on the influence of forests in the U.S.
1 1 12 F[rancis] A. S[tout], New York City, to James T. Gardiner, February 5, 1886; advocating for the “report” to be published immediately and speaking against the act introduced by Senator Hendricks.
1 1 13 Letter: E.M. Moore, Rochester, N.Y., to [Governor] David B. Hill, April 20, 1885;  argues for approval of the appropriation for the state survey.
1 1 14 Letter: Hamilton Fish to James T. Gardiner, April 8, 1884;  thanking him for the New York State Survey of 1883.
1 1 15 Survey map of Macomb’s Purchase in upstate New York, February 7, 1879 (Included are Lewis, Jefferson, St. Lawrence and Franklin counties, and portions of Herkimer and Oswego counties.)
1 2 16 Letter: Samuel B. Woolworth, secretary of the New York State Board of Regents, to Gen. Seymour, January 22, 1879, with notation by James T. Gardiner; regards boundary lines between New York and Pennsylvania.
1 2 17 Letter: C.P. Patterson, superintendent of the Coast and Geodetic Survey Office, Washington, D. C., to James T. Gardiner, October 25, 1880; transmitting copy of a letter from Assistant C.O. Boutelle to Patterson regards replacement of a survey post.
1 2 18 Letter: C.J. Lyons, Office of Hawaiian Environmental Survey, Honolulu [T.H.], to James T. Gardiner, October 27, 1879; acknowledging receipt of reports of 1877 and 1878 and expressing interest in Gardiner’s work.
1 2 19 Letter: C.B. Comstock, Office of the U.S. Lake Survey, Detroit, Mich., to James T. Gardiner, October 27, 1879; regards republication of the chart of Niagara Falls.
1 2 20 Typed copy of the resolutions of the American Geographical Society, n.d.
1 2 21 Letter: P. Emolie, Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Buffalo, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, August 27, 1875; measurements of water levels in the Erie Canal.
1 2 22 Copy of letter: O.S. Wilson, Assistant State Survey, Albany [N.Y.] to J.E. Hilgard, Assistant U. S. Coast Survey, Washington, D. C., March 19, 1880; requests information on an instrument for determining magnetic declination.
1 2 23 Copy of letter: J.E. Hidgard, Assistant U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to O.S. Wilson, Assistant New York State Survey, Albany, N.Y., April 6, 1880; responding to Item 22.
1 2 24 Letter: William Dorsheimer, New York, [N. Y.] to James T. Gardiner, December 15, 1883; regards meeting to discuss the proposed Adirondack Reservation.
1 2 25 Elevations upon the Rochester & State Line Rail Road (New York) furnished by C.B. Masten, Chief Engineer, 1874.
1 2 26 Table of Elevations on the New York Central & Hudson River Rail Road, Chas. H. Fisher, chief engineer, New York City, March 13, 1875
1 2 27 Elevations upon the Southern Central Rail Road (New York) furnished by F.E. Knight, late Chief Engineer, July 1874.
1 2 28 Letter: Chas. H. Fisher, chief engineer, New York Central & Hudson River Rail Road, to James T. Gardiner, March 15, 1875; enclosing the table of elevations in Item 26.
1 2 29 “Resume of the Report of the State Survey for 1883”; printed copy with notations, n.d.
1 2 30 Letter: F[rancis]. A. Stout, New York [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, January [?]; regards getting Gardiner’s report approved and preserved.
1 3 31 Report from the U.S. Coast Survey Office on Levels between New York and Albany, March 20, 1875.
1 3 32 Letter: F[rancis]. A. S[tout], Century Club, New York [N.Y.] to James T. Gardiner, February 28, 1887; sending him $20 to purchase copies of the report to be distributed to state legislators and press.
1 3 33 Letter: William Dorsheimer, Washington, [D.C.], to James T. Gardiner, January 17, 1885; asking to meet with Gardiner.
1 3 34 Postal card: John Mechan, assistant state surveyor, Esperance, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, September 17, 1877; reports on survey markers set up in Esperance.
1 3 35 Letter: John Mechan, Cobleskill, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, September 26, 1877; reports on survey progress in Utica and Schoharie.
1 3 36 Letter: John Mechan, Fonda, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, September 12, 1877; reports on Dennis Sheehan’s detachment from the surveying party.
1 3 37 Letter: John Mechan, Fonda, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, September 13, 1877; reports on markers set up in Fonda.
1 3 38 Letter: John Mechan, Duanesburg, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, October 9, 1877; reports on placement of monuments.
1 3 39 Letter: John Mechan, to James T. Gardiner, October 2, 1877
1 3 40 Letter: John Mechan, Schoharie, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, September 20, 1877; reports on progress of survey.
1 3 41 Letter: John Mechan, Esperance, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, October 11, 1877; reports on monuments 49-52 and expenses, etc.
1 3 42 Letter: John Mechan, Amsterdam, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, September 7, 1877; reports on findings in Amsterdam.
1 3 43 Letter: John Mechan, New York City, to James T. Gardiner, March 13, 1878; reports on monuments 44 and 46; mentions Mr. Bogardus.
1 3 44 Packet containing John Mechan’s sketches and letters to James T. Gardiner, October 23-December 3, 1877.  Items 44-1 to 44-19.
1 4 45 Resolution of the Board of Supervisors on Onondaga County requesting an accurate map of the county, January 31, 1879.
1 4 46 Letter: E.A. Lurtz, Cornell University, Department of Civil Engineering, Ithaca, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, February 8, 1879; discussing instruments for triangulation.
1 4 47 Sketch of the triangulation at Saratoga, 1877.
1 4 48 Sketch of State Survey triangulation in vicinity of Slingerland, 1877.
1 4 49 Survey maps, possibly drawn by William C. Pierrepont:
  1. Showing lake survey triangles in the vicinity of Oswego, May 12, 1877.
  2. Showing Macomb’s 6 patents, May 12, 1877.
1 4 50 Letters: John Mechan to James T. Gardiner, June 6 and 8, 1877; reports on surveying tasks and monuments in the city of New York.  (4 items)
1 4 51 Notes on the relative levels of points at Buffalo, N.Y., n.d.
1 4 52 Letter: William C. Pierrepont, Pierrepont Manor, Jefferson County, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, February 11, 1879; describes his interest in surveying and his connection to Macomb’s Patents.
1 4 53 Letter: J. E. Hilyard, Washington [D.C.] to James T. Gardiner, April 6, 1880; forwarding both a letter from Gardiner’s assistant, Horace Andrews, and Hilyard’s reply.
1 4 54 Letter: F[rancis]. A. S[tout], New York [N.Y.] to James T. Gardiner, January 27, 1886; concerns soliciting President Barnard to call a meeting of the board.
1 4 55 Letter: F[rancis]. A. S[tout], New York [N.Y.] to James T. Gardiner, January 30 [1886]; regards presenting Gardiner’s report to the board.
1 4 56 Envelope of three news clippings from a Syracuse paper about the state survey report being submitted to the Legislature, February 1886.
Papers relating to Niagara Falls and the New York State Reservation
1 5 57 Tariff of Charges at Niagara Falls, statement by John T. Bush, June 4, 1879.
1 5 58 Niagara Falls Special Meeting, June 9, 1868; notes copied from Records of the Proceedings of the Board of Trustees of the Village of Niagara Falls, N.Y.
1 5 59 Notes copied from Records of the Proceedings of the Board of Trustees of the Village of Niagara Falls, N.Y., December 26, 1876.
1 5 60 Copy of the Opinion of Judge Daniels in the Supreme Court suit of Jane S. Townsend agt. Albert H. Porter and others, regards Water and Grove streets in Niagara Falls, 1874.
1 5 61 Memoranda of Cyrus E. Davis in suit of Jane S. Townsend against Elizabeth S. Porter, et al, 1868.
1 5 62 Extract from An Act relating to the Village of Niagara Falls, etc., Laws of 1866, Ch. 149.
1 5 63 Legal brief relevant to the Jane S. Townsend vs. Albert H. Porter case, signed by Cyrus E. Davis, n.d., 16 p.
1 5 64 Letter: [Daniel?] P. Pratt, Buffalo, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, September 23, 1884; thanking him for the report on the preservation of the scenery of Niagara Falls.
1 5 65 Newspaper clipping: “What Shall Be Done to Protect Niagara Falls?”
1 5 66 Letter: Thomas V. Welch (first Superintendent of the New York State Reservation at Niagara), Niagara Falls, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, August 14, 1885; reports on operations since the opening of the park.
1 5 67 Note regards Map of the Village of Niagara Falls, n.d.
1 5 68 Newspaper clipping from The Niagara Falls Gazette, November 3, 1880; with letters, pro and con, regards the proposed International Park.
1 6 69-73 Letters: Peter A. Porter (former president of the village), Niagara Falls, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, November 17, 1879; September 30, 1879; October 5, 1879; September 27 [1879]; October 11, 1879.  (5 letters)
1 6 74 Notes recounting Commodore Vanderbilt’s interest in purchasing Goat Island, possibly written by Peter A. Porter, n.d.
1 6 75 Letter: Peter A. Porter (former president of the village), Niagara Falls, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, October 23, 1879.
1 6 76 Chart of the number of visitors to Prospect Park, Niagara Falls, N.Y., from January 1 to November 1, 1879, signed George F. Athearn [?], Acct., Prospect Park Co.
1 6 77-78 Letters: Peter A. Porter (former president of the village), Niagara Falls, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, November 6, 1879 and December 24, 1879.
1 6 79 Letter: F.A.P. Bernard, president of Columbia College, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, November 25, 1879; follow up to a meeting with the Commission [for the Niagara Falls Reservation].
1 6 80-83 Letters: D.J. Townsend (local businessman), Niagara Falls [N.Y.] to James T. Gardiner, June 4 and November 3, 21, 24, 1879.
State Assembly Debate and Arguments
1 7 84 “Geological Surveys West of One Hundredth Meridian, Their Uses” and “History of Geological Research West of One Hundredth Meridian,” likely penned by James T. Gardiner, n.d., 10 p.
1 7 85 Report of debate in the [New York State] Assembly on the addition of three new appointments to the Commission of the State Survey, March 29, 1877, 51 p.
1 7 86 Typed copy of Myron A. McKee’s (Member of the New York State Assembly from Herkimer County, 1876-77) remarks on his motion to strike out the names of three extra commissioners added to the State Survey Board (see Item 85), 1877.
1 7 87 “Necessity of combining Geology and Topography,” arguments by James T. Gardiner for maintaining the state survey.
Papers relating to Niagara Falls and the New York State Reservation
1 8 88 Letter of Invitation to James T. Gardiner to attend the opening of the State Reservation at Niagara on July 15, 1885, signed by S. Geyer, F.R. Delano and C.B. Gaskill, July 7, 1885.
1 8 89 Property Sale Flyer titled “Map of Part of the Village of Niagara Falls,” advertising a plot of land available for hotel building, offered by D.J. Townsend, July 1875.  (2 copies, with notations)
1 8 90 Letter of Rowland F. Hill Relative to the International Park or State Reservation at Niagara Falls. Assembly Bill No. 615.  (Albany: Weed, Parsons and Co., 1880), 16 p.
1 8 91 Lists of estimates and costs for the development of the State Reservation at Niagara Falls, 1879.  (10 items)
1 8 92 Draft circular regards the proposed State Reservation at Niagara Falls, prepared by Frederick Law Olmsted, marked Confidential, n.d.
1 8 93 Letter: Frederick Law Olmsted, New York, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, forwarding the draft circular (Item 92), October 2, 1879.
1 8 94 Letter: Frederick Law Olmsted, New York, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, October 1, 1879; regards support for and cost of “International Park.”
1 8 95 Draft letter: James T. Gardiner to Oliver Mowat (Attorney-General of Ontario, Canada), November 5, 1879; regards making arrangements for Mowat to attend a meeting of the State Survey Commissioners.
1 8 96 Newspaper clipping: “Niagara Falls: The Proposed International Par.”  The Daily Globe, Toronto, September 29, 1879; reports on the conference between New York State Commissioners and Ontario Commissioners.
1 8 97-99 Letters: Oliver Mowat (Attorney-General of Ontario, Canada) to James T. Gardiner, June 23, October 3, November 8, 1879; regards meetings about International Park.
1 9 100 Newspaper clipping: “The International Park at Niagara Falls.”  One from Canadian Spectator, October 4, 1879, and another copy with dateline Montreal, September, 23, 1879.
1 9 101 Newspaper reprint: “Niagara Falls. Another view of ‘The Trouble.’” Buffalo Commercial Advertiser, July 20, 1877.  Letter to the Editor, signed D. J. T.
1 9 102 Letter: James T. Gardiner to Oliver Mowat (Attorney-General of Ontario, Canada), June 14, 1879.
1 9 103 Letter: E[ben] C[arleton] Sprague, Buffalo, [N.Y.], to [Gardiner?], June 25, 1879; regards negotiations for Goat Island.
1 9 104 Draft letter: James T. Gardiner to Oliver Mowat (Attorney-General of Ontario, Canada), September 5, 1879.
1 9 105-107 Letters: Frederick Law Olmsted, New York, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, October 1, 2, and 3, 1879.
1 9 108 Letter: J.R. Cartwright, Toronto, [Canada], to James T. Gardiner, September 11, 1879; regards setting up a meeting with Mowat.
1 9 109 Letter: J.G. [?], Attorney-General’s Department, Ontario, to James T. Gardiner, June 16, 1879; acknowledging receipt of legislation on Niagara Falls.
1 9 110 “Concurrent Resolution Directing the Commissioners of the State Survey to Carry Out Certain Suggestions of the Governor Relative to Niagara Falls.” Printed copy.  (2 copies)
1 9 111 “State of New York. No. 615. In Assembly, April 1, 1880.” Printed copy of the act to authorize the state reservation at Niagara.  (2 copies)
Abolishment of Board of Commissioners
1 10 112 Letter: Horatio Seymour, Jr., Utica, [N.Y.], to Erastus Brooks (member New York State Assembly), March 12, 1883; regards putting the State Survey under the direction of the State Surveyor rather than the Board of Commissioners.
1 10 113 Letter: William L. Learned (justice of the New York Supreme Court) to Erastus Brooks (member of the New York State Assembly), March 18, 1883.
1 10 114 Letter: Charles P. Daly (president of the American Geographical Society), New York, [N.Y.], to Erastus Brooks (member of the New York State Assembly), March 12, 1883; argues against abolishing the Board of Commissioners.
Engineering Notes
1 10 115 “Notes on Northern Border of New York and Vermont,” handwritten, n.d.
1 10 116 Letter: W.E. Morrill (major of engineers, U.S. Engineer Office), Cincinnati, Ohio, to James T. Gardiner, Washington, D. C., March 9, 1876; reports on water levels along the Ohio River.
1 10 117 Table showing “Comparisons of Old and New Elevations on Erie Canal,” ca. 1896 [?]
1 10 118 “Notes on Elevation of Benches [?],” handwritten table, n.d.
1 10 119 “Notes of C R R levels in 1873 and 1875 and U. S. Coast Survey Data,” handwritten, n.d.
1 10 120 “Memorandum of Heights above tide on the line of the Susquehanna Rail Road,” signed by Horace Andrews, Albany, [N.Y.], May 23, 1879.
1 10 121 Letter: C.B. Comstock, Office of the U.S. Lake Survey, Detroit, Mich., to James T. Gardiner, July 17, 1879; forwarding Office Report No. 1055.
1 10 122 Table showing “Total Elevations above new [?],” provided by C.B. Comstock, ca. 1876.
1 11 123 Letter: Horatio Seymour, Jr., Albany, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, May 7, 1880; discusses the depth of the Erie Canal.
1 11 124 Office Report No. 1055 (copy): “Description and Elevation of Bench Marks between Greenbush and Oswego, N.Y.” Signed by L.L. Wheeler, July 3, 1879. 14 p. (See Item 121)
1 11 125 Profile chart of Rail Roads from Rome to Lake Ontario, signed by W.C. Pierrepont, September 19, 1877.
1 11 126 “Notes on Test of Gas Burners at Albany Gas Works, December 19, 1878.
1 11 127 Letter: William Henry Baldwin, Civil Engineers and Surveyors, Yonkers, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, February 24, 1877; regards the plan to confirm town and county boundaries within the state.
1 11 128 Plot plans in Oswego and Oneida counties, n.d.
EL10 129 “Table VI,” spreadsheet-type chart of shaft accidents, 1885-1886.
1 11 130 Envelope addressed to James T. Gardiner, containing Color Charts I-VII of the U.S. Geological Survey, n.d. (8 items)
1 11 131 Membership invitation from the Geographic Society of Lisbon, No. 302.
EL10 132 Member certificate for James T. Gardiner from the Geographic Society of Lisbon, March 27, 1877.
Letters and papers relating to Gardiner’s tenure on the State Board of Health
1 12 133 “State of New York.  No. 295.  In Assembly, February 18, 1885.” Printed copy of the act relative to proceedings for the drainage of swamps, marshes, and other low or wet lands, and for draining farm lands.
1 12 134 Contract & Specification for the construction of Sewers and Appurtenances from the Binghamton Insane Asylum. 1885.
1 12 135 Letter: James T. Gardiner to C.S. Lynde, president, Board of Health, Dalton, N.Y., July 1, 1886.  Typed copy.
1 12 136 Letter: J. James Croes, civil engineer, New York, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, May 20, 1885; relates to Mount Vernon Sewage matter.
1 12 137 Letter: Myron A. McKee, Richfield Springs, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, April 18, 1885; regards a system of sewers being installed in the village.  (See Item 164)
1 12 138 Letter: Lyman H. Northup, Sandy Hill, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, June 2, 1885; regards testing the village well water.
1 12 139-141 Letters: Louis. M. Hooper, New York, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, May 7, 12 and 13, 1884; regards air ventilation.  (3 items)
1 12 142 Report to Hubert O. Thompson, Commissioner of Public Works for New York City, by Benjamin S. Church, Resident Engineer, Croton Aqueduct, August 13, 1883.  8 p.
1 12 143 Letter: Edward S. Philbrick, civil engineer, Boston [Mass.,] to James T. Gardiner, December 15, 1883; regards ventilation issues.
1 12 144-145 Letters: R.M. Lyon, civil engineer and surveyor, Bath, Steuben County, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, April 15 and 16, 1884; water levels in the Cohocton River.
1 12 146 Letter: James S. Powers, Plumber and Sanitary Engineer, Booklyn, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, January 14, 1884.
1 12 147 Letter: J.D. Ibbotson, Richfield Springs, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, April 20, 1885; regards plans for a sewage system in the village.
1 13 148 Letter: George M. Post, Board of Health, Montour [Schuyler Co., N.Y.] to The Secretary of the State Board of Health, June 10, 1885.
1 13 149 Letter: Charles Stover, M.D., Health Officer, Amsterdam, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, May 6, 1885; regards sewerage in the city.
1 13 150 Letter: George E. Waring, Jr., Consulting Engineer for Sanitary and Agricultural Drainage, Newport, R.I., to James T. Gardiner, April 18, 1885; regards the cost estimate for a sewage plan in Binghamton.
1 13 151 Letter: James T. Gardiner to Edward M. Moore, President, State Board of Health, Rochester, N.Y., December 12 [?]; regards sewerage plans for Peekskill, N.Y.  (See Items 157 and 167)
1 13 152 Letter: Theodore Townsend to James T. Gardiner, April 29, 1885; letter of introduction for James H. Smith.
1 13 153 Postal card: To James T. Gardiner, New York City, [N.Y.], March 22, 1884.
1 13 154 Letter: Arnold Hague to James T. Gardiner, March 18, 1884; discusses the dangers of coal gas.
1 13 155 Letter: John Bogart, Chief Engineer, Drainage Construction Co., New York, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, January 2, 1884; estimates for work in Peekskill.
1 13 156 Denis O’Brien, Attorney General, State of New York to Alfred L. Carroll, M. D., Secretary of the State Board of Health, January 2, 1885; regards lake water use in Purchase, N.Y.
1 13 157 Letter: Edward M. Moore, President, State Board of Health, Rochester,
N.Y., to James. T. Gardiner, December 12, 1883; regards sewerage plans for Peekskill, N.Y. (See Items 151 and 157)
1 13 158 Handbill: “Powers’ Patent Disinfecting Tank, and Automatic Syphon. For disposing of sewage in country houses and hotels.” Patented July 5, 1881, October 11, 1881.  Presented by James J. Powers, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
(2 copies)
1 13 159 Letter: George E. Waring, Jr., Consulting Engineer for Sanitary and Agricultural Drainage, Newport, R. I., to James T. Gardiner, August 4, 1884; on points of disagreement regards sewer drainage methods.
1 13 160 Letter: O.S. Wilson, C[ivil] E[ngineer] to James T. Gardiner, n. d.; regards the Chemung Canal at Elmira, N.Y.
1 13 161 Report of cost of draining the Chemung Canal, n.d.
1 13 162 Letter: [?], State Board of Health of New York to Mr. Brooks, June 18, 1885; accepting the board’s request to do its engineering work. Typed copy.
1 13 163 Letter: William G. Rice to A.L. Carroll, M.D., Secretary, State Board of Health, May 16, 1885; forwards a letter from Stephen D. Horton.
1 13 164 Letter: Myron A. McKee, Richfield Springs, N.Y,. to James T. Gardiner, April 25, 1885.  (See Item 137)
1 13 165 Letter: William Henry Baldwin, Yonkers, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, April 23, 1885.
1 13 166 Letter: E.A. Hinds, Richfield Springs, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, April 30, 1885; regards drainage of cellars.
1 13 167 Letter: Edward M. Moore, President, State Board of Health, Rochester,
N.Y., to James. T. Gardiner, December 6, 1883.  (See Items 151 and 157)
1 13 168 Letter: A. Grant Childs, City Engineer, Kingston, N.Y. to James T. Gardiner, June 2, 1884.
1 14 169 Letter: Hiram Sibley, Rochester, N.Y. to James T. Gardiner, March 3, 1885; regards drainage of land in New York.
1 14 170 Letter: James S. Powers, Plumber and Sanitary Engineer, Booklyn [N.Y.] to James T. Gardiner, February 13, 1885; regards the Sewer Bill, No. 44, in the Assembly.
1 14 171 Letter: James T. Gardiner to Edward M. Moore, President, State Board of Health, Rochester, N.Y., December 3, 1883; regards Peekskill sewerage plan. Carbon copy.  (See Items 151, 157, 167)
1 14 172 Letter: Erastus Brooks to James T. Gardiner, April 15, 1884.
1 14 173 Letter: Edward M. Moore, President, State Board of Health, Rochester,
N.Y,. to James. T. Gardiner, April 15, 1884. 
1 14 174 Postal card: Alfred S. Carroll to James T. Gardiner, May 30, 1884; gives Professor Elwyn Waller’s address.
1 14 175 Letter: W.H. Vibbard, Civil and Sanitary Engineer, Saratoga Springs, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, April 27, 1885; requesting Report No. 5 for the year 1884.
1 14 176 Letter: Erastus Brooks to James T. Gardiner, May 9, 1884.
1 14 177 Letter: George E. Waring, Jr., Consulting Engineer for Sanitary and Agricultural Drainage, Newport, R.I., to James T. Gardiner, August 28, 1884.
1 14 178 Letter: E.S. Esty, Ithaca [?] to James T. Gardiner, June 2, 1885; town considering sanitary measures to take.
EL10 179 “Map of the Village of Mount Vernon, Westchester Co., N.Y.” from recent surveys. 1876.
1 14 180 Letter: E.D. Smalley, Utica, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, May 28, 1883; regards sewers in the Village of Richfield Springs.
1 14 181 Letter: William Henry Baldwin, Yonkers, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, February 7, 1885; expressing support for Gardiner’s sewerage work and offering his experience.
1 14 182 Letter: Edward M. Moore, President, State Board of Health, Rochester,
N.Y., to James. T. Gardiner, February 12, 1884. 
1 14 183 Letter: Francis A. Stout, Century Club, New York, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, February 8, 1884; recommends Dr. Charles P. Russell for the position of Secretary to the State Board of Health.
1 14 184 Letter: Erastus Brooks to James T. Gardiner, June 16, 1885.
1 14 185-187 Letters: D[aniel] Magone, Odgensburg, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, February 23, May 22 and May 23, 1885; regards development of a sewerage system in Ogdensburg.
1 14 188 Letter: E.D. Smalley, Canastota, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, March 20, 1885.
1 14 189 Letter: Edward M. Moore, President, State Board of Health, Rochester,
N.Y., to James. T. Gardiner, December 26, 1884. 
1 14 190 “References to Modern English statutes relating to the drainage of lands, with a view to the promotion and effectiveness of agricultural labor, the prevention of disease, and the improvement of the health of the community.” Hugh Weightman, New York, February 17, 1885. (Extract from the Annual Report of the State Board of Health of New York.) Typed copy.
Letters and papers on the State Survey and Niagara Falls Preservation
1 15 191 Letter: C.P. Patterson, Superintendent, Coast Survey Office, Washington, D. C., to James T. Gardiner, December 16, 1878; regards coast survey charts of Lake Champlain.
1 15 192 Letter: Samuel B. Woolworth, Secretary, New York State Board of Regents to Horatio Seymour, Jr., April 1 [?]; regards boundary between New York and Pennsylvania.  Copy.
1 15 193 Letter: Horatio Seymour, Jr., Office of the State Engineer & Surveyor, Albany, [N.Y.], to Samuel B. Woolworth, April 1, 1879; regards boundary between New York and Pennsylvania.  Copy.
1 15 194-195 Letter: Samuel B. Woolworth, Secretary, New York State Board of Regents to James T. Gardiner, April 1, 1879; regards boundary between New York and Pennsylvania.  Original and copy.
1 15 196 Letter: C.B. Comstock, Office of United States Lake Survey, Detroit, Mich., to James T. Gardiner, April 24, 1879; regards triangulation stations erected in New York.
1 15 197 Letter: Francis A. Stout, American Geographical Society, Cooper Institute, New York, [N.Y.], to Professor Arnold Guyot, Princeton, N.J., May 23, 1876; requesting his opinion of James T. Gardiner’s qualifications.  Copy.
1 15 198 Copy of Chap. 93, “An Act making appropriations for certain expenses of       government and supplying deficiencies in former appropriations.”  Signed Edgar R. Apgar, Deputy Secretary of State, n.d.
1 15 199 Memorial-Topographical Survey: To the Legislature of the State of New York to pass an act establishing a commission charged with the duty of making an accurate survey of the State of New York, March 1876.
1 15 200 Letter: Francis A. Stout, Chairman of Committee to the President of the New York University, June 2, 1876; requests suggestions as to the best methods of carrying out the survey.
1 15 201 Letter: James T. Gardiner to David C. Robinson, April 1, 1879; discusses cost of the survey.
1 15 202 Memorandum of Mr. Gardiner’s Books sent to Canada. Lists Canadian politicians, judges and newspapers, n.d.
1 15 203 Envelope containing three newspaper clippings:
  1. “New Facts and Figures about the National Domain,” Daily Evening Bulletin, February 26, 1875.
  2. “The Diamond Hunters,” [?] Call, [?] 21, 1875.
  3. “Milk, Butter and Cheese,” n.d.
1 15 204 Legislative Bill: No. 126. “An Act respecting Niagara Falls and the adjacent territory.” 1880.
1 15 205 Letter: D.M. Greene, Dept. State Engineers & Surveyors to James T. Gardiner, March 27, 1875; regards water elevations at Lake Erie.
1 15 206 Letter: C.E. Norton [?], Cambridge, Mass., to James T. Gardiner, April 12, 1884; thanking him for the copy of the report on the Preservation of the Scenery of Niagara Falls.
Correspondence and Papers
1 16 207 Letter: J. Nelson Tubbs, Chief Engineer, Rochester Water Works, Rochester, N.Y., to Governor David B. Hill, May 4, 1885; expresses support for the continuance of the state survey.
1 16 208 Letter: C.P. Patterson, Superintendent, Coast Survey Office, Washington, D. C., to [?], Albany, [N.Y.], May 27, 1876.
1 16 209 Letter: Seth H. Terry, attorney and counselor at law, Rochester, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, February 5, 1877, forwards a letter from Daniel Richmond of Rochester.
1 16 210 Letter: Daniel Richmond, Rochester, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, February 3, 1877;  vouching for O.H. Bogardus as an “applicant to the Corps of Engineers.”
1 16 211 Letter: Howard Soule, Jr., civil engineer, Syracuse, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, February 3, 1877; vouches for O.H. Bogardus in “any position pertaining to engineering or surveying.”
1 16 212 Letter: William W. Wyler [?], Albany, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, February [?], 1877; vouches for O.H. Bogardus.
1 16 213 Letter: State Assemblyman T[homas] G. Alvord, Albany, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, February 6, 1877; vouches for O.H. Bogardus. Also signed by M[erchant] Billington, C. Fred Herbst, Carroll E. Smith and D[ennis] McCarthy.
1 16 214 Letter: C.P. Patterson, Superintendent, Coast and Geodetic Survey Office, Washington, D. C., to James T. Gardiner, December 17, 1878.
1 16 215 Draft letter: James T. Gardiner to the Council of the American Geographical Society, May 1, 1877, unsigned.
1 16 216 Letter: James T. Gardiner to Messrs. [?] Brooks and L.[?] Rice, October 16, 1876; regards topographical survey measuring systems.
1 16 217 “Letter from the Acting President of the National Academy of Sciences transmitting ‘A Report on the Surveys of the Territories,’” December 3, 1878, printed for the House of Representatives, Committee on Appropriations. 27 p.
1 16 218 Letter: O.S. [?] to unknown, May 20, 1882; mentions Anderson, Bogardus, Mr. Crawley [?] and Mr. Terry.
1 16 219 Envelope with five (5) draft notes, totaling $5,800, on the Mechanics and Farmers Bank taken out by James T. Gardiner to carry on the New York State Survey from March to October 1877.
1 16 220 Envelope with five newspaper clippings regards the State Survey:
  1. The New York Times, January 2, 1878
  2. The Gazette, December 13, 1877
  3. Daily Eagle, Poughkeepsie, N.Y., April 3, 1878
  4. The Evening Express, New York, N.Y., February 18, [1878]
  5. The Evening Post, New York, N.Y., February 19, 1878
Letters and Reports
1 17 221 Letter: Thomas Evershed, division engineer, Rochester, N.Y., to the State Board of Health, Albany, N.Y., November 26, 1883; regards claims for damages from the Tonawanda Creek in the Oak Orchard valley.
1 17 222 Letter: E. Kuichling, Rochester, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, November 24, 1883; reports on the work done by Mr. Holmes and Mr. Evershed on the Oak Orchard swamp matter.
1 17 223 List of Books with valuations, n.d., 4 p.
1 17 224 “An Act To Promote the Construction of Outfall Channels for the Drainage of Large Swamps.” Typed copy, n.d., 7 p.
1 17 225 “An Act for the Drainage of Swamp Lands.” Typed copy, n.d., 3 p.
1 17 226 Chapter 885: “An Act to extend Lexington Avenue and close Hamilton Square in the city of New York”; official transcription dated March 20, 1869.
1 17 227 “Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Public Water Supply of Ithaca” by James T. Gardiner, addressed to L. Tremain, president of Ithaca Water Works Company, June 19, 1884.  (Copy)
1 17 228 Draft letter to New York State Governor Grover Cleveland from “members of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Cornell University,” (unnamed), December 15, 1883; arguing for continuation of the State Survey.
1 17 229 Letter: James T. Gardiner to Calvert Vaux, March 7, 1878; discussing development of a survey of birds of New York for the Museum of Natural History and recommending C. Hart Merriam for the work. (Copy)
1 17 230 Resolutions from a meeting of the board of commissioners of the State Survey, July 11, 1876; copy from the minutes of Daniel J. Pratt, Clerk.
Letters in support of a new State Survey
1 18 231 Letter: W.L. Nicholson, topographer, P.O. Dept., Washington, D.C., to James T. Gardiner, March 20 1876; discusses the inaccuracy of existing maps of the state and the need for better ones.
1 18 232 Letter: S.A. Lattimore, professor of chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, March 3, 1877;  expressing support for creation of a state board of health.
1 18 233 Letter: C[linton] Hart Merriam, New York, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, January 29, 1878; discusses the need for a survey of birds of New York State.
1 18 234 Petition to George P. Lord to influence the State Assembly in the matter of ending the State Survey, signed by 14 individuals,  n.d.
1 18 235 Letter: J.K. Rees, Director of the Observatory, Columbia College, New York, N.Y., to New York State Governor Grover Cleveland, December 20, 1883, endorsed by eight other signees; arguing for continuation of the State Survey. (Copy)
1 18 236 Letter: Charles H. Fisher, New York Central and Hudson Rail Road Company, Albany, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, May 24, 1875; reports on coast survey levels.
1 18 237 Drawings and elevations of bench[marks] at Greenbush, N.Y., May 1875.
1 18 238 Letter: James Goodwin, Barre, Orleans [County, N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner [?], n.d.; regards the Oak Orchard swamp issue.
1 18 239 Letter: Cady Staley, [dean of] Union College, Schenectady, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, April 5, 1878; expresses support for Gardiner’s work on the survey.
1 18 240 Letter: E.A. Fuertes, dean, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, March 8, 1878; discusses the value of the survey to property owners in the state.
1 18 241 Letter: H.W. C[lark], Syracuse, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, March 18, 1878.
1 18 242 Letter: H.W. Clark, Syracuse, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, March 18, 1878; discusses the need for better, more accurate surveys in the country.
1 18 243 Letter: Q[uincy] A. Gillmore, United States Engineers Office, New York, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, March 19, 1878; expresses support for an accurate survey of the state.
1 18 244 Letter: Alfred W. Craven, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, March 21, [1878].
1 18 245 Letter: John Newton, New York, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, March 16, 1878; thanks him for the second annual report of the State Survey.
1 18 246 Letter: John B. Jervis, Rome, N.Y., to James T. Gardiner, March 22, 1878; gives his support for an accurate survey of the state.
Extra-Large Folders
EL1 247 Survey Map, location and date unknown.  Removed for conservation.
EL2 248 Survey Map titled “Map of Survey, made by Division C, R.P.I., 1860.”  Signed J. T. Gardner Delt.  (Likely made while a student at R.P.I.)
EL3 249 Drawing titled “Whipple Truss Bridge, over Erie Canal, West Troy, NY.”  Drawn by Div. B, R.P.I. 1860.
EL4 250 Certificate: “James T. Gardiner, by donation from Hon. Seth Terry, Hartford, is an Honorary Member of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.”  Signed by Mark Hopkins, president, and James M. Gordon, treasurer, September 30, 1862.
EL5 251 Technical drawing: “Brooklyn Water Works, Pumping Engine No. 1.” January 27, 1860.  Signed James T. Gardiner, Troy [N. Y.]
EL6 252 Set of Blueprints for home of S.D. Sargeant, Northeast Harbor, Me., designed by architect Fred L. Savage, n.d., 8 p.
EL7 253 Set of architectural plans for a restaurant at Harborside, n.d., 9 p. (May have been part of the complex designed by Fred Savage for James T. Gardiner at Northeast Harbor, Me. ca. 1890)
EL8 254 Four panoramic photographs, probably of the Rhone Glacier in Gletsch, Switzerland, n.d.:
  1. “Rhone Hotel & Glacier,” approx. 10 in. x 6 in.
  2. Close-up of glacial area, approx. 19 in. x 9 in.
  3. Scene of snowcapped mountains, a building and hikers, approx. 19 in. x 9 in.
  4. Close up of snowcapped mountains and glacier, approx. 19 in. x9 in.
EL9 255 “Profile Plan,” survey map, signed by Julius K. Monroe [Surveyor], Kingwood, West Virginia, November 13, 1891.
Correspondence and Other Papers
1 19 256 Certificate and Great Seal of the State, certifying James T. Gardiner as director of the State Survey of New York, signed by Joseph B. Carr, Secretary of State, May 9, 1881.
1 19 257 Packet of three letters sent to Governor Grover Cleveland by William Dorsheimer, President of the Commissioners, reports on the value and efficiency of the State Survey, April 10, 1884.  Consists of:
  • Cover letter from Dorsheimer
  • Letter to Dorsheimer from J.E. Hilgard, Superintendent of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, April 11, 1884
  • Letter to Hilgard from C.O. Boutelle, Asst., U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, April 9, 1884
1 19 258 Letter: W.O. Buchanan, Niagara Falls, Ontario, [Canada] to James T. Gardiner, July 8, 1883; informs him of actions harmful to the park being taken by the Michigan Central Rail Road; marked ‘Private.’
1 19 259 Letter: E[lias] W[arner] Leavenworth, Syracuse, [N.Y.], to James T. Gardiner, March 2, 1885; regards water and drainage issues for Onondaga Creek.
1 19 260 Letter: R.W. Raymond of Cooper, Hewitt & Co., New York, [N.Y.] to James T. Gardiner, April 6, 1885; requests him to work on a project for Bernhardt E. Fernow, new chief of the Forestry Division.
1 19 Letter: Clarence King, [New York, N.Y.], to Hon. Francis Hendricks, chairman of investigating committee, March 17, 1885. (Copy)
1 20 “Origins of the State Survey,” letter from James T. Gardiner to Governor Grover Cleveland, ca. 1883. (Copy 1) 20 p.  FRAGILE
Last Updated: September 23, 2016